Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular ( Eye ) cancer in children. Retinoblastoma develops in immature retina cells. RB1 gene controls the multiplication of tumor causing cells. A mutation in RB1 gene is identified as the single largest cause of retinoblastoma. At CMCS Health , we are associated with best retinoblastoma hospitals in India. We offer affordable retinoblastoma treatment in India with Top retinoblastoma doctors in India.
Retinoblastoma - An overview:
Retinoblastoma is a rare cancer of eye. Retinoblastoma affects mostly children but in very rare instances it can affect adults too. Retinoblastoma accounts for almost 2% of all childhood cancers. It is the most common eye cancers in children. In united states alone 200-300 children are diagnosed with retinoblastoma annually.
- It is observed that there would be 8000-9000 new cases of retinoblastoma globally per year.
- More than 95% of all retinoblastoma cases occur before the age of 8 years.
- If not treated in time most of the retinoblastoma can be fatal.
As per some unpublished reports, there are :
- 196 new retinoblastoma cases in Nigeria annually.
- 25 new cases annually in Saudi Arabia.
- 100-120 new retinoblastoma cases / year in Egypt.
- Almost 200-210 retinoblastoma cases in Kenya annually
- 16.8% of all childhood cancers in Tanzania are retinoblastoma
People from all across the world come to India for expertise of Indian retinoblastoma specialist doctors , latest diagnostic facilities and reasonable cost to get retinoblastoma treatment in India at the best retinoblastoma hospitals in India.
Signs and symptoms of retinoblastoma:
Retinoblastoma generally affects children. Usually retinoblastoma is detected during a routine health examination of a child but at times parents may observe following symptoms and approach a doctor.
- An abnormal white patch ( Leukocoria ) or even a red pupil
- Enlarged pupil or swelling of the eye
- Different colour irises
- A reddened and painful eye
- Unexplained poor vision
- Strabismus ( misaligned eyes ) , eyes that seem to be looking in different directions
Risk factors for Retinoblastoma:
These are a few known risk factors for retinoblastoma.
Retinoblastoma usually occur in children but it very rare instances it has affected adults as well. Retinoblastoma generally affect children below the age of 8 years thereafter the chances of retinoblastoma start decreasing.
Approximately one out of three children affected by retinoblastoma have RB1 gene mutation in all the cells of the body. In 75% of the children affected with retinoblastoma the RB1 gene mutation occur even when they are still in womb. When the genetic factors are responsible for retinoblastoma , the possibility of both eyes being affected are higher.
Other unconfirmed possible risk factors for Retinoblastoma:
in some unconfirmed studies certain other parent related factors were identified as causative factors for retinoblastoma. These factors include:
- If the mother consumes less fruits and vegetables during the pregnancy
- Exposure of mothers to gasoline ,diesel or other petroleum products exhaust during the pregnancy
- When the age of father is on higher side while the child is conceived
- Exposure of fathers to radiation
Best retinoblastoma hospitals in India do following confirmatory retinoblastoma diagnostic tests:
Retinoblastoma occur usually in young children so it is spotted either during a routine health examination of child by a doctor or if the parents of child find some abnormality with child's eyes. once a child is suspected to have retinoblastoma and after physical examination and taking the family history of child, the treating doctors may recommend following tests and investigations to confirm the diagnosis:
Imaging tests for diagnosis of Retinoblastoma:
Eye Ultrasound (USG ) for retinoblastoma:
Eye ultrasound ( USG) is an imaging diagnostic test that uses sound waves to create images of the structures in the eye. The test is done without any incision or pain to child. When the sound waves are bounced back from an abnormal mass or tumor, they are different from that of normal tissues and structures of eye. These sound waves are bounced back to a connected computer that converts them to images and doctors can make out the presence of a tumor ( retinoblastoma ) inside the eye.
CT ( computed tomography ) Scan for diagnosis of Retinoblastoma:
A CT scan is more precise as compared to the ultrasound. It uses X-rays to capture pictures of internal structures of eye from different angles and then combines those pictures into a detailed 3 dimensional image to show any abnormality or a tumor. A CT scan also helps the doctors in determining the size of tumor and also the extent of tumor spread. At times a special dye or contrast media is used to get more detailed images.
Magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) for diagnosing retinoblastoma:
MRI is preferred imaging test for diagnosing retinoblastoma by many pediatric oncologists as it does not expose the child to potentially harmful radiation like CT Scans. Unlike the CT Scans that uses X-Rays , MRI uses the magnetic waves to capture the images of internal structure of eye , orbit and brain. MRI can also be used to measure the tumor’s size. MRI can be done with contrast media or without it.
Periodic CT scans and MRIs are recommended for the brain, for the children who have genetic form of retinoblastoma.
Pathological investigations for diagnosing retinoblastoma:
Apart from imaging tests , treating doctors may also recommend certain blood and other pathological tests to confirm the diagnosis and deciding the treatment course for retinoblastoma.
Blood tests may be recommended by retinoblastoma treating doctors to check any abnormality in Kidney and liver of the child. Pathological testing is also done to ascertain any changes in chromosome 13. Chromosomes are the parts of a cell that contain genes. In some children suffering from retinoblastoma, these genes are either missing or nonfunctional. Molecular analysis of the genes is now routinely being done at Best retinoblastoma hospitals in India.
Spinal tap (Lumbar puncture) :
After giving local anesthesia to child , the doctor will collect cerebrospinal fluid samples with the help of a needle inserted in the lower spine of the child. These samples are analysed by a pathology doctor under the microscope for detecting the cancer cells and also the tumor markers. This test is done only when the treating doctor suspects that retinoblastoma may have spread to brain.
Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy:
Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are done simultaneously to collect a sample of the fluid with a needle and a bone marrow biopsy is the removal of a small amount of solid tissue using a needle.
These samples are then studied by a pathology doctor under a microscope to find any cancer cells. These tests are done only when the treating doctor suspect that retinoblastoma may has grown outside the eye and it might have also spread to the bone marrow.
Other diagnostic tests done for retinoblastoma:
Treating doctor may advise certain other tests for the accurate treatment of retinoblastoma :
Treating doctor may advise a bone scan to rule out if the retinoblastoma is spread to skull or other bones.
Audiometry or hearing tests:
Treating doctor may advise an audiometry test to rule out the harmful effect ( hearing loss) due to a specific type of chemotherapy given for treatment of retinoblastoma.
At CMCS Health , we offer affordable retinoblastoma treatment in India with top retinoblastoma doctors in India , at best retinoblastoma hospitals in India.
Staging of retinoblastoma:
Once the diagnostic tests confirm retinoblastoma , the second step is to determine the stage of retinoblastoma ( extent of disease in the eye and if the disease has metastasized outside the eye ). The staging of retinoblastoma is important for deciding the treatment course and give a fair amount of indication about the prognosis of the disease.
The retinoblastoma staging can be broadly classified as:
- Intraocular retinoblastoma means the tumor is still inside the eye structure , either in one eye or both the eyes and has not spread out of the eye strictures, and to other parts of body.
- Extraocular retinoblastoma is the stage where the tumor has spread out of the eye structures and have invaded other tissues and organs of the body.
- Recurring or relapsed retinoblastoma is the stage of retinoblastoma where the cancer has come back even after being treated earlier.
Best retinoblastoma hospitals in India offer following retinoblastoma treatments:
Once the diagnosis of retinoblastoma is established and the staging has been done , the next step is to start the treatment process. The main objectives of retinoblastoma treatment are:
- To cure retinoblastoma and save life of child
- To save the affected eye , if possible
- To preserve the vision
- To minimize the side effects of retinoblastoma treatments
CMCS Health offers affordable retinoblastoma treatment in India with Top retinoblastoma doctors in India. Best retinoblastoma hospitals in India offer following treatment options :
Chemotherapy for treatment of Retinoblastoma by best retinoblastoma hospitals in India :
Chemotherapy is the first choice for treatment of retinoblastoma. Chemotherapy involves administering of chemotherapy medicines to kill or stop the growth of cancer cells. Chemotherapy for retinoblastoma helps in shrinking the size of tumor , it will also help in other treatment options like Cryotherapy, laser therapy or plaque radiotherapy. Cryotherapy or laser therapies are used post the chemotherapy for any residual retinoblastoma cancer cells. These treatment modalities reduces the chances of eye surgery or enucleation ( removal of the affected eye ).
Best Retinoblastoma hospitals in India offer the following three types of chemotherapy for treatment of retinoblastoma.
- Systemic chemotherapy for treating retinoblastoma is given either through a chemo-port or intravenous administration. The chemotherapy drugs will travel to entire body to kill any cancer cell .
- Intra-arterial chemotherapy is a newer way of delivering chemotherapy directly to the tumor or nearby tissues. Chemotherapy is delivered through a catheter put into an artery supplying blood to eye. Doctor may put a tiny balloon like device in that artery to keep pressing the chemotherapy closer to tumor.
- Intravitreal chemotherapy is injecting the chemotherapy medicines directly into eye tissues.
CMCS Health assists retinoblastoma patients in getting the correct retinoblastoma treatment in India with Top retinoblastoma doctors in India.
Cryotherapy for retinoblastoma treatment :
In Cryotherapy a very cold substance like liquid nitrogen, is placed in or near the retinoblastoma cancer cells. Once the cancerous cells freeze, the cold substance is removed and the cells thaw and die because of extreme cold. This process of freezing and thawing may be repeated a few times in each cryotherapy session. The treatment is generally done as a day care treatment and the child is discharged from the hospital same day. We offer affordable cryotherapy at best retinoblastoma hospitals in India with top retinoblastoma doctors in India.
Laser therapy for retinoblastoma treatment :
The Laser therapy for retinoblastoma treatment kills the retinoblastoma cancer cells through heating. Treatment is given for smaller tumors, while the child is asleep (under general anesthesia), usually for about 10 minutes at a time. Generally three sessions at a gap of one month for three months are needed to control retinoblastoma tumor. There are two types of laser therapy used by best retinoblastoma hospitals in India:
- Laser Photocoagulation
- Transpupillary thermal therapy (TTT)
At CMCS Health , we offer affordable laser therapy for retinoblastoma treatment in India by top retinoblastoma doctors in India.
Targeted therapy for treatment of retinoblastoma by best retinoblastoma hospitals in India :
Targeted therapy is newer approach for treating retinoblastoma. Targeted therapies for retinoblastoma uses drugs or other substances like Oncolytic adenovirus to identify and attack the RB1 genes , causing retinoblastoma. This treatment uses an adenovirus that infects and breaks down cancer cells but not normal cells and thus lesser side effects than conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
Radiation Therapy for treatment of retinoblastoma:
Radiation therapy is targeting cancer cells with high powered energy beams like X rays or sub atomic particles like protons to kill them. Best retinoblastoma hospitals in India offers following types of radiation therapy for retinoblastoma treatments in India.
- External beam radiation therapy for retinoblastoma
- Plaque Radiation therapy or brachytherapy for treatment of retinoblastoma
At CMCS Health , we are associated with Best Indian Radiation oncology doctors for treatment of retinoblastoma.
Surgery for treatment of Retinoblastoma :
Surgery is done for removing the tumor and some of the surrounding healthy tissues called safe margins.
At times doctors decide to remove complete eye along with some portion of optical nerve to save the life of the child. The surgery is called enucleation.
Immediately after the eyeball is removed, the surgeon places a special ball made of plastic or other materials in the eye socket. The muscles that control eye movement are sometimes attached to the implant. After the child heals, the eye muscles will adapt to the implanted eyeball, so it may move just as the natural eye did. However, the implanted eyeball cannot see. Doctors may also advise use of prosthetic eye post the enucleation surgery for cosmetics purpose.
Best Retinoblastoma treatment hospitals in India:
The best retinoblastoma treatment hospitals in India are joint commission international accredited and offer hassle free retinoblastoma treatments for both Indian and global patients. Many international health insurance companies offer retinoblastoma treatment coverage. If the best retinoblastoma treatment hospitals in India have those international health insurance companies on their panel , patients can avail the benefit of their health insurance coverage for retinoblastoma treatment in India at best retinoblastoma treatment hospitals in India.
Best Retinoblastoma treatment hospital in India - New Delhi.
Center for Sight Hospital Best retinoblastoma hospital Dwarka and Safdarjung enclave New Delhi, India.
Centre for Sight hospitals in India are one of the best eye hospital chains in India. Centre for sight hospital dwarka in New Delhi is best equipped for providing complete and cost effective retinoblastoma treatment in India.
Best Retinoblastoma treatment hospitals in India - Hyderabad.
Centre for sight Hospital Best retinoblastoma hospital Banjara Hills Hyderabad, India.
Centre for sight hospital , Banjara Hills , Hyderabad is a respected eye care hospital in India. Centre for sight hospital in Hyderabad, India offers complete and comprehensive retinoblastoma treatments in India . With leading pediatric ophthalmologist and pediatric medical oncologist and onco surgeons , it is a preferred retinoblastoma treatment hospital in India.
L V Prasad eye Institute Best retinoblastoma hospital Kallam Anji reddy campus Hyderabad, India.
L V Prasad eye institute is a comprehensive eye care facility in India. It has collaborated with world health organization (WHO) for prevention of blindness. Kallam Anji reddy campus , Banjara hills , Hyderabad is one of the leading eyecare hospital in India today. The treating faculty at L V Prasad eye hospital boasts of some of the best eye care specialists in India. With a full fledged vertical in treating retinoblastoma , it is one of the sought after retinoblastoma treatment hospital in India.
Best Retinoblastoma treatment hospitals in India - Gurugram.
Medanta - The Medicity Best Retinoblastoma hospital Gurugram , India.
Medanta - The Medicity hospital is one of the leading multispecialty hospitals in India . The hospital is having some of the best Indian medical doctors in their respective fields, as treating faculty. Medanta the medicity hospital is located in gurugram, a city called as the millennium city of India.
With the state of art , latest technologies , it has created a name in the super specialized medical treatments not only in India but many other countries. Patients from many countries come to Medanta- The medicity for their super specialized medical treatment needs. Medanta - The medicity is one of the known hospital for retinoblastoma treatment in India.
Best Retinoblastoma hospitals in India - Chennai.
Sankara Nethralaya Best Retinoblastoma hospital Chennai.
Sankara Nethralya Hospital is one the respected eye hospital name in India. It is located in Chennai , the capital city of Tamilnadu state of India. Regarded as one of the best eye care hospital in India and abroad for the expertise of doctors , cutting edge technologies and better patient compliance. Sankara Hospital offer best and cost effective treatment for Retinoblastoma.
Top Retinoblastoma doctors in India:
Listed below are few of the top retinoblastoma doctors in India.
Dr. P Vijay Karan Reddy Top Retinoblastoma doctor in India Apollo Hospital Hyderabad , India.
Dr. Obuli Ramachandran Top Retinoblastoma doctor in India Centre for Sight Eye Hospital New Delhi , India.
Dr. Nirmala Subramanian Top retinoblastoma doctor in India Sankara Nethralaya Chennai , India.
Get opinion from the best Retinoblastoma treatment specialist Indian doctors at Best Retinoblastoma treatment hospitals in India about treatment course , treatment cost and success percentage. Send your medical queries about best retinoblastoma treatment hospitals in India to us.
Story of Retinoblastoma treatment in India for an Afghanistan baby girl | CMCS Health.
Baby bibi zahra from Kabul , Afghanistan had an eye condition of left eye. When the problem grew severe the parents took her to an eye doctor in Kabul,who advised them to come to India at earliest for addressing the medical issue with left eye of child.
Baby Bibi Zahra was born as a normal child , She was growing normally as a healthy child. Once she grew a few months older , her mother observed something abnormal with her left eye. Like when the baby was held under the lights , a small white opaque patch (Leukocoria) was evident in her left eye. Because of being in a very remote place of Afghanistan and being unaware of the dangers of her medical condition, the family members thought that the Child's eye will become ok when she will grow.
When her left eye started swelling and eyeball seems protruding , the parents visited an eye doctor in Kabul who advised them to visit India at earliest to get the eye condition checked and a proper treatment can be provided to child. Parents approached us and we helped them in getting a medical visa for coming to India.
On arrival in India, we received then at Indira Gandhi International airport and had taken them straight to The best Retinoblastoma hospital in New Delhi , India. At Centre for sight Hospital , Safdarjung enclave , New Delhi , the top pediatric eye doctors saw the child, took the family history and recommended certain investigations . The investigations confirmed extraocular orbital retinoblastoma.
Due to delay in diagnosis , proptosis occurred in her left eye, which is a severe form . Doctors decided to do enucleation of left eye ( removal of left eye ball with tissues ) . The child underwent systemic chemotherapy sessions followed by external beam radiation therapy to treat any leftover cancerous cells and reducing chances of recurrence.
If the child would have been diagnosed early , we could have saved her eye.
Awareness and early diagnosis is very important in saving the eye and life of a retinoblastoma patient.
Send us all your queries for retinoblastoma treatments in India at best retinoblastoma hospitals in India with top retinoblastoma specialist doctors.